NASA Transforms Access to Low-Earth Orbit, Touches Interstellar Space, Makes Unprecedented Discoveries and Develops Cutting-Edge Technologies in 2013

In 2013, NASA helped U.S. commercial companies transform access to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station even as one of the agency’s venerable spacecraft was confirmed to have reached interstellar space, and engineers moved ahead on technologies that will help carry out the first astronaut mission to an asteroid and eventually Mars.

“Even in a time of great change and transition, NASA employees stayed focused on what it takes to get the job done — returning space station resupply launches and the jobs they support back to the United States, developing cutting-edge technologies that will help us send American astronauts to an asteroid and Mars, uncovering new knowledge about our home planet and the universe and helping develop cleaner and quieter airplanes,” NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said. “It’s all the hard work and dedication from the NASA folks on the front lines that keep the United States the world’s leader in space exploration.”

The following are some of NASA’s top stories this year:

Commercial Space Progress

Photo taken by the Expedition 34 crew aboard the International Space Station during the March 3, 2013 approach, capture and docking of the SpaceX Dragon. Image Credit: NASA

Photo taken by the Expedition 34 crew aboard the International Space Station during the March 3, 2013 approach, capture and docking of the SpaceX Dragon.
Image Credit: NASA

A little more than two years after the end of the Space Shuttle Program, NASA has returned the International Space Station resupply missions to the United States in a powerful partnership with U.S. companies SpaceX and Orbital Sciences, who are investing here and creating good-paying jobs for American workers.

This medium close-up view, photographed by one of the Expedition 37 crew members, shows the first Cygnus commercial cargo spacecraft built by Orbital Sciences Corp. attached to the end of the robotic arm (Canadarm2) on the International Space Station. Image Credit: NASA

This medium close-up view, photographed by one of the Expedition 37 crew members, shows the first Cygnus commercial cargo spacecraft built by Orbital Sciences Corp. attached to the end of the robotic arm (Canadarm2) on the International Space Station.
Image Credit: NASA

NASA remains committed to launching American astronauts from U.S. soil within the next four years. Recent progress includes key milestones in commercial crew development met by three American companies: Boeing, SpaceX and Sierra Nevada Corporation; a Nov. 19 request for proposals on the Commercial Crew Transportation Capability contract (CCtCap), designed to ensure commercial companies meet NASA’s safety requirements for transporting NASA and international partner crews to the International Space Station; unfunded Space Act Agreements with other potential commercial providers; and creation of a Space Technology Program focused on breakthrough innovations that will change future transportation options. These accomplishments have been bolstered by the extension of International Space Station operations to 2020, enabling expanded commercial and research opportunities.

Enabling Deep Space Exploration

The International Space Station, backdropped by the blackness of space and the thin line of Earth's atmosphere. Image Credit: NASA

The International Space Station, backdropped by the blackness of space and the thin line of Earth’s atmosphere.
Image Credit: NASA

The primary destination of these commercial launches, the International Space Station, celebrated 15 years in orbit in November, and crew members have lived and worked aboard the station non-stop since October 2000.

Members of NASA's newest astronaut class pose with an Orion capsule at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston on Tuesday, Aug. 20, 2013. Image Credit: NASA

Members of NASA’s newest astronaut class pose with an Orion capsule at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston on Tuesday, Aug. 20, 2013.
Image Credit: NASA

2013 was a year of progress toward new capabilities as the agency’s new Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket completed its preliminary design review and the Orion multipurpose crew vehicle reached many milestones on its path to undertake its first flight test in 2014. The heat shield that will protect Orion on that mission’s re-entry next year was delivered to the Kennedy Space Center for installation; NASA reached an agreement with the European Space Agency (ESA) to partner on the spacecraft’s service module; and Orion itself underwent loads testing, a water recovery test, and full power-up.

Four RS-25 engines, like the one pictured undergoing a hot-fire test, will power the core stage of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) -- NASA's new heavy-lift launch vehicle.

Four RS-25 engines, like the one pictured undergoing a hot-fire test, will power the core stage of NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) — NASA’s new heavy-lift launch vehicle.

NASA and 12 of its international partners released a Global Exploration Roadmap, sending a clear signal that the global community is committed to a unified strategy of deep space exploration, with robotic and human missions to destinations that include near-Earth asteroids, the moon and Mars.

Asteroid Mission

This concept image shows an astronaut retrieving a sample from a captured asteroid. Image Credit: NASA

This concept image shows an astronaut retrieving a sample from a captured asteroid.
Image Credit: NASA

The public imagination has been captured by the mission NASA announced in April to redirect an asteroid into a stable retrograde orbit in the vicinity of the moon using cutting-edge space technology, such as solar electric propulsion. This will allow astronauts to visit the asteroid, study its characteristics and bring samples home. In November, NASA held a workshop to discuss about 100 of the best ideas the agency has received from around the world about both identifying asteroids and figuring out what to do about those that are a threat, as well as how to best carry out the asteroid redirect mission. The mission formulation review has been completed, and NASA will move into mission baseline discussions in 2014.

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft, having completed its original mission, was reactivated this year to hunt for asteroids. OSIRIS-REx, NASA’s robotic mission to return samples from an asteroid, moved from formulation to the development phase in 2013.

NASA also announced an Asteroid Grand Challenge to find and characterize asteroid threats and gather ideas for capturing and redirecting an asteroid for human exploration. The public is incredibly interested in asteroids, and the agency expects strong participation in this initiative.

To read the complete article at NASA.gov, click HERE.

 

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